Database management is a method of coordinating the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing data and distribution to applications and users making changes as needed and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failures. It is a part of the entire informational infrastructure of a company that assists in decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with a certain scheme, like one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most well-known database type today. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data because it does not require the changing of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of various external views based on different models of data and can include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.