A number of what is net working capital: how to calculator & nwc formula like will be no possibility of its rejection as often occurs otherwise . A number of diseases like parkinsonia, alzheimer, diabetes and diseases related with kidneys will possibly be cured in future by the application of cloning technique. “Dolly” sheep was produced by using nuclear transfer technique by Dr. Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute of Scotland in 1997. VNTR is a small fragment of DNA containing tandemlyy repeated sequence, whose number and length vary among chromosome and individuals. VNTR shows a high level of polymorphism and is specific for different individual, whereas Probe is a small fragment of DNA or RNA used for identification of genes in biological system.

Melanogaster, a non-target organism, at sub-organismal as well as organismal level. Further, his studies also highlight the potential of D. Melanogaster as an alternative animal model for in-vivo assessment of environmental chemical mediated toxicity, which might have relevance to higher organisms. Later, he joined CNRS-Centre de Biologie du Développement, Toulouse, France as a postdoctoral researcher and worked on deciphering the function of the Drosophila hematopoietic niche to maintain blood cell homeostasis.

(a) Expand VNTR and describe its role in DNA fingerprinting. (b) List any two applications of DNA fingerprinting technique

In this experiment a few of the many transplanted eggs could develop into tadpoles. These developed tadpoles were identical in genotype and phenotype to their parents. This nuclear transplantation technique devised by Gurdon is still being used in cloning practice in some modified manner.

The which are used in such cloning include blastomere separation, nuclear transplantation and the Honolulu technique. Animal cloning Embryonic cell in animals, are deprived of their totipotency by the time they enter into gastrula stage. So animal cloning is some what more difficult than plant cloning. On the basis of aims and end products animal cloning is of two types Reproductive and Therapeutic.


A brief introductory history of cloning is given in table. Anurag Sharm is working as Assistant Professor at NUCSER, Nitte University. During his Ph.D. he studied the stress response of endosulfan on D.

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A molecule’s properties determines, how rapidly an electric field can move the molecule through a gelatinous medium. Extraction– DNA extracted from the cell by cell lysis . If the content of DNA is limited then DNA can be amplified by Polymerase chain reaction . It is technique to identify a person on the basis of his/her DNA specificity. Mention the contribution of genetic maps in human genome project.

Her major research areas include Parasitology with special interest in Malaria in the city of Mangaluru where drug resistance is beginning to appear. She is presently working in the division of Bioinformatics and Computational genomics with increased surveillance and research on various viruses spreading across the globe. Cloning has important role in treatment of serious and non-curable diseases, a view that is favoured by most scientists, however there is no agreement on the issue of human cloning. Doubts have also been there about the health and ageing of clones and the misuse of cloning.

  • His research focuses on understanding and characterizing the genomic patterns that drives the evolution and infection capabilities of microbial pathogens of humans and animals.
  • View the VNTR premarket stock price ahead of the market session or assess the after hours quote.
  • On the basis of aims and end products animal cloning is of two types Reproductive and Therapeutic.
  • Animal cloning Embryonic cell in animals, are deprived of their totipotency by the time they enter into gastrula stage.

Presently, he is engaged in the following areas-a) Development of an in vivo Drosophila model to study toxicant/radiation induced hematopoietic perturbations and b) Host-Microbe interaction and environmental toxicants. In such condition, if the cells from the patient himself are taken and cultured to form desired organ. The organs developed in such manner will be easily acceptable by the patient, and there will be no possibility of its rejection as often occurs otherwise. Dr. Sudarshan Kini is a Bionanotechnologist who obtained Ph.D. from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay and has Post-Doctoral experience from Manipal University. His research areas are the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds for the 3D culturing of cancer cells and Pseudomonas biofilms.

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He has 36 research publications in highly rated journals of international standard, mostly related to molecular characterization of microbial pathogens. His research work is supported by various agencies such as SERB, DST, DBT, ICMR and Nitte . My specific area of research is to understand the role of ribosomes in bone marrow failure syndromes and cancer.

After then the udder cell nucleus was fused with the enucleated egg cell under electrical stimulation. At last the fused egg was implanted into the uterus of surrogate mother, other than the egg donor where it grew into a lamb. Thus the Dolly was born, as a genetically identical copy of its mother. They used somatic cells from udder for forming this clone. One udder cell with its nucleus intact was selected because this nucleus carried the mother’s genetic information. A clone of the whole animal is prepared in reproductive cloning.

DNA Finger Printing

Taqman real-time PCR was conducted on samples from each group to confirm infection and quantify viral genetic loads. ORF94 VNTR genotype analysis conducted on samples from each of the 43 passage groups indicated no variations in the VNTR number in either genotype TRS5 or genotype TRS7. This finding is contrary to the previous report and suggests that ORF94 VNTR are stable during multiple passages in these crustaceans. Dr. Akshath completed his Ph.D. at CSIR-CFTRI, Mysore, with a specialization in Biosensors and Bio-imaging. His work was focused on nanoparticle-based biosensors to detect food contaminants and toxins using enzymes/aptamers as biorecognition elements.


In these plants, the clones produced by a twig are similar in their genotype as well as in phenotype . Scientists have been much curious to apply this characteristics of plants on animals also to conserve the desired genotypes of some rare animals by making their clones. In higher animal, showing sexual reproduction, a zygote is formed after fertilization of the egg by spermatozoa. It was revealed by the scientists through several experiments that only the egg and/or zygote has the potential to produce a whole individual from a single cell. Gurdon of Oxford University applied this fact while performing an experiment on frog. He destroyed the nucleus of an unfertilized egg of frog by treating with U.V rays and transferred the nucleus of intestinal epithelial cell of tadpole into the egg cell .

She has secured second rank in MSc Microbiology from University of Mysore. Pathogenesis and membrane-based antibiotic resistance mechanisms of bacteria. Cloning is the process of producing many identical organisms , generally used to produce new plants with similar characteristics. In higher animals, clones are produced by nuclear transplantation technique in which the nucleus from a somatic cell is transferred into an unfertilized enucleated egg. The world’s most famous sheep ‘Dolly’ was a clone produced by this method. Many incurable diseases which are not curable so far, may be cured effectively in near future by applying the processes relating with cloning and genetic engineering.

  • The developing embryo is the clone of the donor cell from which nucleus was obtained for transplantation.
  • A molecule’s properties determines, how rapidly an electric field can move the molecule through a gelatinous medium.
  • In this experiment a few of the many transplanted eggs could develop into tadpoles.

In Honolulu technique ( 1998-Teruhiko Wakayama – cloned mice) there is no fusion of the donor and recipient cells or its nucleus. Instead of ,nucleus from the donor cell which is in G0or G1, stage is substituted into enucleated egg cell . In nuclear transplantation technique, nucleus is removed from the egg obtained from the female.

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These fragments are prepared for commercial and hybridization technology either for finding complementary sequence or in the diagnosis of some diseases. Industrial BiotechnologyApplication of bacterial biopigments as alternative dyes in the textile industry. Divyashree M, Madhu K Mani, Mamatha B S, Sudarshan Kini.

A previous report suggested that the ORF 94 VNTR is highly unstable, varying in the number of tandem repeats during single passages from shrimp to other crustaceans. High titre stocks of each virus were produced by injection in specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with filtered infected tissue extracts, and the genotypes were confirmed. Each stock was then used to feed SPF Pacific white shrimp, freshwater crayfish (Cherax sp.) and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii through 3 successive passages involving alternative hosts at each level.

You can find more details by visiting the additional pages to view historical data, charts, latest news, analysis or visit the forum to view opinions on the VNTR quote. A) Explain DNA polymorphism as the basis of genetic mapping of human genome. Expand VNTR and describe its role in DNA finger printing. List any two applications of DNA finger printing technique. It is used in forensic science to identify potential crime suspects. Sustainable utility of Carica papaya leaf extract for the production of ecosafe medical textiles.